Unit 2: Energy
Introduction to Energy
What is Energy? [answers from students]
- The power to make machines go…
- A [power] source that makes technology work…
- A fuel [source]
- The power to make things move
Definition from Webster’s Online Dictionary
- A fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work
- Usable power
What are the different energy sources? [answers from students]
From Project NEED website http://www.need.org/needpdf/infobook_activities/PriInfo/SourcesP.pdf
- Biomass- bio = living renewable [less than 100 years to reproduce]
- Coal-fossil fuel, carbon nonrenewable [more than 100 years to reproduce]
- Geothermal- geo = earth; thermal = heat renewable [less than 100 years to reproduce]
- Hydropower- hydro = water renewable [less than 100 years to reproduce]
- Natural gas- fossil fuel nonrenewable [more than 100 years to reproduce]
- Petroleum-fossil fuel nonrenewable [more than 100 years to reproduce]
- Propane-fossil fuel nonrenewable [more than 100 years to reproduce]
- Solar- renewable [less than 100 years to reproduce] sol = sun
- Uranium-nonrenewable [more than 100 years to reproduce]
- Wind- renewable [less than 100 years to reproduce]
Fossil Fuel [What is It?] Billions of dead things, layed up in rock layers, put down by water, all over the earth.
- Mechanical [motion]
- Radiant [from the sun]
- Thermal [heat]
Bill Nye Energy Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTXW9aRO23Y [8:52]
1. Energy is converted from one form to another
2. Energy makes things go [move]
3. Potential Energy = energy that is stored
4. Kinetic Energy = energy that is moving.
5. *Kinetic energy will never be bigger than it’s [the objects] gravitational potential energy [stored]… bowling ball pendulum.
6. Electricity ? heat released from burning coal ? makes steam ? turns a turbine ? generates electricity OR falling water ? spins a turbine ? generates electricity
Bill Nye Energy part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vfcsq6ylRzg [6:07]
7. Nuclear energy? makes heat ?makes steam ? generates electricity
8. Wind Power ? turns propellers ? turns generator ? makes electricity
9. Sun [Solar] ? with photovoltaic cells creates electricity
10. Hydropower ? water falls ? drives turbines ? makes electricity
- Electrical energy changes to: 1) Light, 2) Heat, or 3) Motion
Bill Nye Energy Part 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkDG02nzfSk [8:04]
11. Oil ? fossil fuel [dug up/ pumped out of the ground]; combines with oxygen to make heat.
12. Logs were burned to create heat and light.
13. Food is burned to make heat and motion, 60% is heat and 40% is motion; food energy began as light energy from the sun.
The Song: ERG
It's something that I feel… When I eat a mega-meal
I know it's working fine… When I see a neon sign
Lets me jump and rant… I'm a human power plant
Moves like waves in the sea… I'm talking energy!
Standing in the sun… There's a burning sensation
Cracking energy… That we call radiation
Plug in this mike… Get electricity
Changes its form… But it's still energy!
Energy makes things go… Energy makes things run
Energy makes things move… Energy makes things fun
I start to get hot… When I dance on my feet
Energy changes form… And suddenly becomes heat
Listen to my voice… Here's why you hear
Sound is energy… That shakes your ear
Picking up energy… Coming from the bass drum
Moving lots of air… It's a good vibration
Sound dies out… As the waves become heat
Just another form of energy!
Energy makes things go… Energy makes things fun
Energy makes things move… Energy makes things fun
From the DVD Switch: Discover the Energy of the Future
Scott Tinker is a Geologist at the University of Texas
One 'me' = the amount of energy used by one person in one year = 20,000,000 watt hours!
The topics that we are previewing include:
Hydro can be a baseload source of electricity or can follow demand instantly.
Hydro [falling water] can be used to create electricity [turn turbines]; we ‘always’ will have it.
Water goes up [evaporates] then gravity brings it down [precipitation] in streams and rivers.
It is ‘high impact’ to build hydro power dams [we need to direct the flow of water elsewhere while hydro dam is being created].
In the ‘developed world’ we’ve used nearly all available sites.
Future growth is limited to the developing world AND to retrofitting existing plants.
Belle Ayre Mine, Wyoming...
Coal fields example powers 3.6 million people per year
At this site the coal for ½ U.S. electrical generation is mined.
Volume is equal to 3 Panama Canals mined every year
80,000 tons of coal shipped every day... billions of tons in reserve.
Hundreds of years left in the supply.
Coal is readily available, easy to use and cheap.
Cheap electricity makes all products more affordable.
Coal lifts developing countries out of poverty.
Coal produces huge amounts of local pollution
One half of all global CO? emissions are from coal AND much of it is from developing countries.
Coal is used to heat [boil] water to make steam which turns a turbine to make electricity.
Cheapest way to produce electricity in the world.
Affordable electricity makes everything else more affordable.
Coal is dirty; no coal plants capture CO? emissions.
India and China and 3rd world countries will use coal to generate electricity in the future = more pollution.
Oil is 'liquid coal'
Oil is a superb transportation fuel, at an affordable price.
Huge amounts of energy are stored in small amounts of liquid.
Virtually our only transportation fuel as 97% of the world’s transportation systems run on it.
Perdido [Shell] Gulf of Mexico example 1.7 million people per year; an oil platform in 8,000 ft of water
Richmond Refinery San Fransico Bay area, California example 3 million people per year creates 25% of gasoline and 75% of jet fuel for the Bay area.
High oil prices almost always lead to a recession.
Oil holds too much influence on the economy.
Diversifying into other fuels would have many benefits.
Billions of $$ are spent annually trying to stabilize oil regions in the world each year.
U.S. uses 20 million barrels per day
One ‘tanker’ of oil used every 13 minutes world-wide... capacity of 750,000 barrels
Surmont Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada example 340,000 people per year.
80% needs to be recovered by thermal steam which is heated by natural gas.
Primarily a water plant... good at recycling and cleaning water... water treatment
Must take mixture that is 70% water down to 0.5% water.
Gives hot water and oil mixture of which 0.5% is water [CONOCO]
A recycling/cleaning water operation which re-uses the water throughout the process
$60 - $70 per barrel crude price is needed to be economically competitive