Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade

Brainstorming (section 1) A method of coming up with alternative designs. During brainstorming, each person in a group suggests ideas. One person writes down all the ideas, and no one is allowed to laugh at or criticize them- no matter how foolish or unusual they might seem. After many ideas have been proposed, the group reviews them all. The best ideas are developed further.

Constraint (section 1) The limits imposed on a design solution.

Design Brief (section 1) A list of specifications for a design.

Informed Design (section 1) A process providing a way to make decisions without complete knowledge and then reassess those decisions later on.

Mathematical Model (section 1) A model that uses equations to describe how a product will function or perform.

Prototype (section 1) A full-scale, fully operational version of a solution.

Scale Model (section 1) A model that is either larger or smaller than the final product.

Specification (section 1) The performance requirements, or output requirements, that a solution must fulfill.

Variable (section 1) The different factoers that affect the performance of a design.

Aesthetics (section 2) The way something looks and how that affects people's feelings.

Anthropometry (section 2) The science of measuring people.

Ergonomics (section 2) Also called human factors engineering; deals with designing products so they can be used easily and comfortably.

Functionality (section 2) The ability of a product, system, or process to fulfill its intended purpose over its desired life span.

Quality (section 2) The degree of excellence.

Probability (section 3)  The likelihood that something will take place.

Risk/Benefit Trade-Off (section 3) A common trade-off made in solving large problems; to obtain desired benefits, designers must allow for risk while trying to keep the risk as low as possible.

Values (section 3) The principles we consider worthwhile that influence all of our decisions.

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade

Asymetrical Lacking symetry; one side of an asymetrical drawing is different from the other side.

Balance (section 1) The way various parts of a design relate to another.

Bar Graph/Chart (section 3) A chart that allows people to compare different categories; a chart in which different quantities are indicated by the length of bars.

Circle Graph/Chart (section 3) A chart allowing people to compare things relative to each other and to the whole by illustrating the fraction or percentage of the total for different products or categories; a pie chart.

Computer-Aided Design (section 2) A tool that allows people to produce drawings using a computer instead of technical hand tools.

Crating (section 1) The technique of working from geometric shapes to create new shapes.

Drafting Tablet (section 2) A special surface and pen allowing the drafter to make lines and drawings that appear directly on the computer screen.

Freehand (section 1) How sketching is usually done, without drawing tools or instruments.

Graph (section 3) A way of presenting information visually that usually shows how something changes over a period of time.

Graphic Techniques Ways of communicating ideas visually that include sketching, drawing, and using recognizable symbols.

Isometric Drawing (section 1) A pictorial drawing that is done within a framework of three lines, or an isometric axis.

Oblique Drawing (section 1) A pictorial drawing that shows a straight-on view of one surface of an object.

Orthographic Drawing (section 1) Two-dimensional (2-D) drawing.

Perspective Drawing (section 1) The most realistic type of pictorial drawing, in which the parts of the object that are farther away appear smaller.

Pictorial Drawing (section 1) A three-dimensional (3-D) drawing, which is more realistic than a 2-D drawing because it gives a clearer picture of the object.

Pie Chart A chart that allows the comparison of things relative to each other and to the whole by illustrating the fraction or percentage of the total for different products or categories; a circle chart.

Plotter (section 2) A large-scale printer used to print mechanical and architectural drawings; output device that uses one or more pens to make a drawing.

Proportion (section 1) Different sizes within a design.

Rendering (section 1) A way of making a drawing look more realistic, often by using shading and textures.

Rhythm The way the eye of the viewer moves around an entire design.

Shading Using lighter and darker tones to show how light falls on an object.

Sketch A simplified view of an object or place.

Symmetry Exact correspondence of both sides of a design; mirror imaging.

T-Square A long straightedge with a crosspiece at one end, allowing the user to draw horizontal lines that are exactly parallel to each other.

Technical Drawing (section 1) Production of highly accurate drawings using special insstruments and tools.

Texture (section 1) The look and feel of the surface of an object.

Unity (section 1) The concept that all parts of a design should work together to produce a single general effect.

Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade

Consumers people who buy products or services.

Capital one of the seven technological resources; any source of wealth.

Stock shares of a company that allow investors to become part owners of it.

Dividends shares of a company's profits that are paid to investors.

Interest the amount of money charged by a lender that must be paid in addition to the amount borrowed.

Data raw facts and figures.

Nanoseconds one billionth of a second.


Renewable Energy Sources any source of energy that can be replaced.

Nonrenewable Energy Sources a source of energy that cannot be replaced once it has been used up.

Raw Materials any natural resource that is use to make finished products.

Renewable Raw Materials  any raw material that can be grown or replaced.

Nonrenewable Raw Materials a raw material that cannot be grown or replaced.

Synthetic Materials any material made in a factory.



Labor Costs the amount of money required to hire people to work.

Composites a combination of several materials that improves on their individual properties.


Chapter 7 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade

Annealing (section 4) Heating steel to red hot and then allowing it to cool very slowly, making the steel softer.

Blow Molding (section 3) A process in which a bit of heated plastic is placed in the center of a mold, injected with air, and then expanded in a uniform thickness to form the desired shape.

Brittle (section 2) Will not deform without breaking.

Casting (section 3) A process by which a liquid is poured into a mold, allowed to harden, and then removed from the mold.

Ceramic (section 1) An object made from clay or similar inorganic (nonliving) materials.

Compression (section 2) A force that pushes on or squeezes a material.

Conductor (section 2) A material whose atoms give up some electrons easily.

Drilling (section 3) A separating process used to cut round holes in materials.

Ductile (section 2) Able to be twisted, bent, or pressed without breaking.

Elasticity (section 2) The stiffness of a material.

Electroplating (section 4) A process that uses electricity to form a thin metal coating on an object.

Extruding (section 3) The process of squeezing softened materials through an opening so they take the shape of that opening.

Ferrous Metals (section 1) Types of alloys made of more than 50% iron.

Filtering (section 3) A method of separating solids from liquids in a mixture.

Forging (section 3) Heating (but not melting) a metal part and then hammering it into shape.

Forming (section 3) Changing the shape of a material without cutting it.

Glaze (section 1) A glasslike material that protects the surface of ceramics and gives them color.

Grinding (section 3) Using small particles to sharpen or sand the surface of materials.

Hardening (section 4) Heating steel red hot and quickly cooling it in water, resulting in harder steel.

Hardness (section 2) A material's ability to resist being scratched or dented.

Hardwood (section 1) Wood from trees such as Maples, Oaks, and Poplars.

Industrial Materials (section 1) Materials that have been processed.

Insulator (section 2) A material binding electrons to an atom so the electrons cannot move freely between atoms.

Manufactured Board (section 1) A construction material such as plywood or particle board made from wood chips and sawdust. It is often stronger than the original wood used to make the board; it does not warp or twist.

Nail (section 4) A pointed, tapered piece of metal used to fasten together two pieces of wood.

Nonferrous Metal (section 1) Metal other than iron, as well as any alloy without a large amount of iron.

Optical Property (section 2)A material's ability to transmit or reflect light.

Plastic (section 1) A material made of long, chainlike molecules called polymers.

Plasticity (section 2) The ability to be reshaped under pressure without breaking.

Pressing (section 3) A process similar to casting, but which uses force to change the shape of a material.

Primary Material (section 1) Any material that is taken directly from the Earth.

Processing (section 3) Changing resources into desired results.

Rivet (section 4) A metal bolt or pin used to hold pieces of sheet metal or other materials together.

Sawing (section 3) Separating materials by using a metal blade with teeth.

Screw (section 4) A tapered and pointed metal pin with ridges used to pull one piece of material tightly against another.

Separating (section 3) Removing part of a material, usually through cutting or grinding.

Shaping (section 3) A process used to change the shape of a piece of material.

Shear (section 2) A material comes under shear  force when one part slides in one direction and the other part slides in the opposite direction; it acts on a material like a pair of scissors.

Shearing (section 3) Using a knifelike blade for separating.

Sintering (section 3) The process of heating powdered metal to make the particles fuse together.

Softwood (section 1) Wood that comes from trees with needle-like leaves, such as Pines and Firs.

Soldering (section 4) Joining two metals with heat and soft solder, which is an alloy made from lead and tin.

Strength The ability of a material to keep its own shape when a force is applied to it.

Tempering (section 4) Heating steel, after hardening, to a temperature that is not quite red hot and cooling it quickly, making it less brittle.

Tension (section 2) The force that pulls on a material

Thermal Property (section 2) A material's ability to conduct heat

Thermoplastic (section 1) Plastics that soften when heated, allowing them to be melted and shaped.

Thermoset Plastic (section 1) Plastics that do not soften when heated, but char and burn instead.

Torsion (section 2) The twisting of a material.

Toughness (section 2) The ability of a material to absorb energy without breaking.

Turning (section 3) A process in which the material to be cut (the workpiece) is spun by a machine called a lathe.

Vacuum Forming (section 3) A process of stretching a sheet of warm, soft plastic down and letting it cling to whatever it is drawn against.

Vulcanize (section 1) Natural rubber, called latex, is vulcanized, or heated with sulfur, to make it more resistant to temperature changes.

Welding (section 4) Joining materials by heating them enough to fuse them together.




Manufacturing: The changing of materials into useable products.

Natural Materials: Materials that are found in nature. They include wood, clay, metal ores and oil.

Synthetic: Materials that are made by people.

Raw Materials: Materials as they appear in nature. For example, a tree is a raw material. Most raw materials cannot be used until after they are processed into industrial materials.

Industrial Materials: Materials used to make products. Lumber is one example of an industrial material.

Primary Processes: Processes that change raw materials into industrial materials. There are three kinds of primary processes- mechanical, thermal, and chemical.   

Secondary Processes: Processes that turn industrial materials into finished products. These processes include forming, separating, combining, and conditioning.

Forming: The process of changing the shape of a material. The material itself is not changed by adding or taking something away. It is done several ways- rolling, casting, forging, stamping, extrusion.

Rolling: The process of squeezing a material between rollers. Sheet metal is made this way.


Casting: Pouring or forcing softened material into a mold.

Forging: The process of hammering or squeezing material into shape. Usually dies (molds, patterns or forms) are used to shape the material. Most wrenches are made by forging

Stamping: The process of squeezing sheet metal between dies to give it shape. Stamping is used to shape some automobile body parts.

Extrusion: The process of pushing a material into shape. The shape of an opening in the die determines the shape of the material.

Separating: The cutting of materials into size and shape. Some material is usually lost. Heat, light, chemicals, and even water can be used for separating.

Shearing: The separating of part of a solid material from the rest of the material.. No material is destroyed. Thin materials like paper and sheet metal can be cut by shearing.

Combining: The process of putting materials together. Combining is done in a variety of ways- Mixing, mechanical fasteners, soldering and brazing, coating.

Mixing: Materials may be mixed together to form new materials. Food products such as cake mixes are made this way.

Mechanical Fasteners: These include nails, screws, staples, and nuts & bolts.

Soldering & Brazing: Combining processes that involve heat. A material is melted along a joint between pieces of metal to join them together. The metal pieces themselves DO NOT melt.


Coating: This process uses one material to cover another. It may be done to decorate or protect the covered material. Some coatings do both. Painting is the most common coating process.

Conditioning: A process that changes the internal structure of a material. The three types of conditioning are thermal, chemical, and mechanical.

Thermal Conditioning: A process that uses heat. Hardening, tempering, and annealing are thermal processes used to condition materials. Hardening makes metal products more wear resistant. Tempering is the reheating of hardened materials to remove brittleness and make them tougher. Annealing is a softening process..

Chemical Conditioning: A Conditioning process that uses a chemical reaction. Vulcanization is a chemical conditioning process used to make rubber durable. A substance such as sulfur is added to the rubber. Heat and pressure are then applied.

Mechanical Conditioning: Uses force. Forging is an example of mechanical conditioning. Hammering a piece of metal will cause it to change. This is usually done to make the metal harder.


Chapter 14 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade

Section 1

Energy the ability to do work.

Heat thermal energy transferred from something warmer to something cooler.

Joule the amount of energy required to move an object one meter using one Newton of force.

Kinetic Energy energy that results from motion.

Potential Energy energy that is stored. Gravitational Potential Energy is energy that is stored in an object because of its position relative to the ground. Elastic Potential Energy is energy that is stored in an object that is stretched or compressed.

Thermal Energy the energy of the atoms that make up a substance. When the thermal energy of an object increases, the atoms move faster and the object becomes warmer.

Work something produced or accomplished through effort or activity. Work is done whenever a force pushes or pulls on an object, causing the object to move. WORK = FORCE [F] X DISTANCE [D]

Section 2

Biomass vegetation and animal wastes.

Fossil Fuel energy rich substances from the remains of plants and animals that lived thousands* of years ago. Fossil Fuels are made primarily of hydrogen and carbon atoms joined together as molecules in a high-energy, chemical bond.

Geothermal Energy thermal energy that is stored below the Earth's surface.

Nuclear Fission the splitting of an atom's nucleus.

Nuclear Fusion a process in which the nuclei of two atoms are forced together to form a new nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy.

Photovoltaic Cell a solar cell that can turn sunlight into electricity.

Radioactive Waste waste material containing unstable atoms that give off radiation.

Solar Energy energy from the sun.

Turbine a circular device with blades.

Section 3

Diesel Engine an engine in which diesel fuel is injected into a cylinder at the end of the compression step. Diesel engines are similar to Gasoline engines except that they burn fuel oil, which is heavier and oilier than gasoline.

Electrical Generator a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

External Combustion fuel is burned in a chamber outside the engine, providing heat to another liquid or gas.

Gasoline Engine an engine in which a spark ignites a fuel.

Internal Combustion Energy an engine in which the combustion process takes place inside the engine; when the fuel is ignited, chemical energy is converted to thermal energy and then to mechanical energy.

Power the amount of work done during a given period of time. POWER [P] = WORK [W] / TIME [T]

*Teacher refuses to believe in the millions of year theory

Chapter 18 Vocabulary

Must be hand-written in notebook to receive a grade


Section 1

Artificial Intelligence Any use of machines to imitate human intelligence.

Nanotechnology The creation of materials, devices and systems using individual atoms and molecules.

Robotics The area of artificial intelligence that designs and builds robots.

Speech Recognition Digitizing the sound waves of speech and then converting them to the basic sounds that are used in language.

Speech Synthesis Converting text to speech by breaking down the written words into basic sounds of the language and then converting the sounds into digital audio.

Virtual RealityUsing artificial intelligence to create a computer-generated environment.

Wireless Personal Area Network A short-range, wireless network that links personal devices together without the use of cables.


Section 2

International Space StationConstruction project in space being built by the United States and 15 other nations, for which 45 rockets and space shuttle missions will carry 460 tons of parts to the construction site.

Space FactoryA factory in space that is powered by solar energy to run robots.

Space Tourism Traveling into space for a large fee.

Section 3

Information Overload More information than one can handle.

Telecommuting Working at home using an electronic linkup with a central office.

Technostress A type of stress that results from our dependence on the technology that surrounds us.