New York State Technology Education Standards

  • Lesson Plan Standards

    TCO (Technical Content Organizer) - Performance Indicators
    Engineering Design
    1. describe objects, imaginary or real, that might be modeled or made differently and suggest ways in which the objects can be changed, fixed, or improved
    2. investigate prior solutions and ideas from books, magazines, family, friends, neighbors, and community members
    3. generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices
    4. plan and build, under supervision, a model of the solution using familiar materials, processes, and hand tools
    5. discuss how best to test the solution; perform the test under teacher supervision; record and portray results through numerical and graphic means; discuss orally why things worked or didn't work; and summarize results in writing, suggesting ways to make the solution better
    1. identify needs and opportunities for technical solutions from an investigation of situations of general or social interest
    2. locate and utilize a range of printed, electronic, and human information resources to obtain ideas
    3. consider constraints and generate several ideas for alternative solutions, using group and individual ideation techniques (group discussion, brainstorming, forced connections, role play); defer judgment until a number of ideas have been generated; evaluate (critique) ideas; and explain why the chosen solution is optima
    4. develop plans, including drawings with measurements and details of construction, and construct a model of the solution, exhibiting a degree of craftsmanship
    5. in a group setting, test their solution against design specifications, present and evaluate results, describe how the solution might have been modified for different or better results, and discuss tradeoffs that might have to be made
    1. initiate and carry out a thorough investigation of an unfamiliar situation and identify needs and opportunities for technological invention or innovation
    2. identify, locate, and use a wide range of information resources including subject experts, library references, magazines, videotapes, films, electronic data bases and online services, and discuss and document through notes and sketches how findings relate to the problem
    3. generate creative solution ideas, break ideas into the significant functional elements, and explore possible refinements; predict possible outcomes using mathematical and functional modeling techniques; choose the optimal solution to the problem, clearly documenting ideas against design criteria and constraints; and explain how human values, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations have influenced the solution
    4. develop work schedules and plans which include optimal use and cost of materials, processes, time, and expertise; construct a model of the solution, incorporating developmental modifications while working to a high degree of quality (craftsmanship)
    5. in a group setting, devise a test of the solution relative to the design criteria and perform the test; record, portray, and logically evaluate performance test results through quantitative, graphic, and verbal means; and use a variety of creative verbal and graphic techniques effectively and persuasively to present conclusions, predict impacts and new problems, and suggest and pursue modifications
    Tools, Resources and Technological Processes
    1. explore, use, and process a variety of materials and energy sources to design and construct things
    2. understand the importance of safety, cost, ease of use, and availability in selecting tools and resources for a specific purpose
    3. develop basic skill in the use of hand tools
    4. use simple manufacturing processes (e.g., assembly, multiple stages of production, quality control) to produce a product
    5. use appropriate graphic and electronic tools and techniques to process information
    1. choose and use resources for a particular purpose based upon an analysis and understanding of their properties, costs, availability, and environmental impact
    2. use a variety of hand tools and machines to change materials into new forms through forming, separating, and combining processes, and processes which cause internal change to occur
    3. combine manufacturing processes with other technological processes to produce, market, and distribute a product
    4. process energy into other forms and information into more meaningful information
    1. test, use, and describe the attributes of a range of material (including synthetic and composite materials), information, and energy resources
    2. select appropriate tools, instruments, and equipment and use them correctly to process materials, energy, and information
    3. explain tradeoffs made in selecting alternative resources in terms of safety, cost, properties, availability, ease of processing, and disposability
    4. describe and model methods (including computer-based methods) to control system processes and monitor system outputs
    Computer Technology
    1. identify and describe the function of the major components of a computer system
    2. use the computer as a tool for generating and drawing ideas
    3. control computerized devices and systems through programming
    4. model and simulate the design of a complex environment by giving direct commands
    1. assemble a computer system including keyboard, central processing unit and disc drives, mouse, modem, printer, and monitor
    2. use a computer system to connect to and access needed information from various Internet sites
    3. use computer hardware and software to draw and dimension prototypical designs
    4. use a computer as a modeling tool
    5. use a computer system to monitor and control external events and/or systems
    1. understand basic computer architecture and describe the function of computer subsystems and peripheral devices
    2. select a computer system that meets personal needs
    3. attach a modem to a computer system and telephone line, set up and use communications software, connect to various online networks, including the Internet, and access needed information using email, telnet, gopher, ftp, and web searches
    4. use computer-aided drawing and design (CADD) software to model realistic solutions to design problems
    5. develop an understanding of computer programming and attain some facility in writing computer programs
    Technology Systems
    1. identify familiar examples of technological systems that are used to satisfy human needs and wants, and select them on the basis of safety, cost, and function
    2. assemble and operate simple technological systems, including those with interconnecting mechanisms to achieve different kinds of movement
    3. understand that larger systems are made up of smaller component subsystems
    1. select appropriate technological systems on the basis of safety, function, cost, ease of operation, and quality of post-purchase support
    2. assemble, operate, and explain the operation of simple open- and closed-loop electrical, electronic, mechanical, and pneumatic systems
    3. describe how subsystems and system elements (inputs, processes, outputs) interact within systems
    4. describe how system control requires sensing information, processing it, and making changes
    1. explain why making tradeoffs among characteristics, such as safety, function, cost, ease of operation, quality of post-purchase support, and environmental impact, is necessary when selecting systems for specific purposes
    2. model, explain, and analyze the performance of a feedback control system
    3. explain how complex technological systems involve the confluence of numerous other systems
    History and Evolution of Technology
    1. identify technological developments that have significantly accelerated human progress
    1. describe how the evolution of technology led to the shift in society from an agricultural base to an industrial base to an information base
    2. understand the contributions of people of different genders, races, and ethnic groups to technological development
    3. describe how new technologies have evolved as a result of combining existing technologies (e.g., photography combined optics and chemistry; the airplane combined kite and glider technology with a light-weight gasoline engine)
    1. explain how technological inventions and innovations have caused global growth and interdependence, stimulated economic competitiveness, created new jobs, and made other jobs obsolete
    Impacts of Technology
    1. describe how technology can have positive and negative effects on the environment and on the way people live and work
    1. describe how outputs of a technological system can be desired, undesired, expected, or unexpected
    2. describe through examples how modern technology reduces manufacturing and construction costs and produces more uniform products
    1. explain that although technological effects are complex and difficult to predict accurately, humans can control the development and implementation of technology.
    2. explain how computers and automation have changed the nature of work
    3. explain how national security is dependent upon both military and nonmilitary applications of technology
    Management of Technology
    1. participate in small group projects and in structured group tasks requiring planning, financing, production, quality control, and follow-up
    2. speculate on and model possible technological solutions that can improve the safety and quality of the school or community environment
    1. manage time and financial resources in a technological project
    2. provide examples of products that are well (and poorly) designed and made, describe their positive and negative attributes, and suggest measures that can be implemented to monitor quality during production
    3. assume leadership responsibilities within a structured group activity
    1. develop and use computer-based scheduling and project tracking tools, such as flow charts and graphs
    2. explain how statistical process control helps to assure high quality output
    3. discuss the role technology has played in the operation of successful U.S. businesses and under what circumstance they are competitive with other countries
    4. explain how technological inventions and innovations stimulate economic competitiveness and how, in order for an innovation to lead to commercial success, it must be translated into products and services with marketplace demand
    5. describe new management techniques (e.g., computer-aided engineering, computer-integrated manufacturing, total quality management, just-in-time manufacturing), incorporate some of these in a technological endeavor, and explain how they have reduced the length of design-to-manufacture cycles, resulted in more flexible factories, and improved quality and customer satisfaction
    6. help to manage a group engaged in planning, designing, implementation, and evaluation of a project to gain understanding of the management dynamics